Our new season is now open: Spring 1677 !
Also known as the Kingdom of Denmark and Denmark-Norway.
- Relations: peaceful with England
- Current Ruler: Frederick III
- Religion: Protestant, specifically Lutheranism.
European politics of the sixteenth century revolved largely around the struggle between Catholic and Protestant forces, so it was almost inevitable that Denmark, a strong, unified Lutheran kingdom, would get drawn into the larger war when it came. The Thirty Years War went badly for the protestant states in the early 1620s, and Denmark was called on to "save the protestant cause". Embarrassingly for Christian IV, the Danish military intervention in Germany was a fiasco; worse still, Sweden later intervened with greater success.
Christian IV is nevertheless widely remembered as one of the great kings of Denmark. He had a very long reign, from 1588 to 1648, and is known as the architect on the Danish throne because of the large number of building projects he undertook. Many of the great buildings of Denmark were constructed during his reign.
After his death, Denmark waged a disastrous war against Sweden. An abnormally cold winter allowed Swedish troops to cross the sound on the ice and attack Copenhagen directly. The peace in 1658 ceded three of Denmark's richest provinces, Scania, Halland, and Blekinge, to Sweden under the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde.
As a result of the disaster in the war against Sweden, King Frederick III was able to convince the nobles to give up some of their powers and their exemption from taxes, leading to the era of absolutism in Denmark