Our new season is now open: Spring 1677 !
This is an Opt-In article
The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or 'Common Celtic' that is a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. Please note that the term 'Celtic' was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707.
Insular Celtic(P-Celtic) and Continental Celtic (Q-Celtic)
Insular Celtic languages originated in the British Isles in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia. All surviving Celtic languages are from the Insular Celtic group as all the continental celtic languages are extinct.
The Insular Celtic Languages can be broken into two distinct families: Goidelic and Brythonic.
The Brythonic or Brittonic languages forms one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family, the other being Goidelic. The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Britton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael.
The Brythonic languages derive from the British language, spoken throughout Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the Iron Age and Roman period. North of the Forth. The Pictish language is considered to be related; it is possible it was a Brythonic language, but it may have been a sister language. In the 4th and 5th centuries emigrating Britons also took Brythonic speech to the continent, most significantly in Brittany. During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric. Welsh and Breton continue to be spoken as native languages, while a revival in Cornish has led to an increase in speakers of that language. Cumbric is extinct, having been replaced by Goidelic and English speech. The Isle of Man may also have had a Brythonic language that was replaced with a Goidelic one.
The Goidelic languages form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic languages. Goidelic languages historically formed a dialect continuum stretching from the sough of Ireland through the Isle of Man to the north of Scotland. There are three modern Goidelic languages: Gaelige (Irish), Gàidhlig (Scottish Gaelic) and Gaelg (Manx)
|Primitive Irish||Modern blends|
|Scots Gaelic||Manx Gaelic|