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Whig is an abbreviation of 'whiggamore', a term originally applied to the Scots Covenanters and then to a developing political party of all those who oppose the future James II during the Exclusion Crisis. Their key values are civil and political liberty, and they are in fact the political forefathers of such radical revolutionaries as the American Founding Fathers, although in later years many Whigs turned out to be very conservative when under William III they rose to power.
The Earl of Shaftesbury was one of the leaders of this faction in Parliament. At this point, the group remains informal and is more commonly known as the "Country Party". They fight against what they see as the King's tendencies to Tyranny. France is the example they abhor. Whigs tend to favour the Dutch political system.